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Wallpaper is a material used in interior decoration to decorate the interior walls of domestic and public buildings. It is usually sold in rolls and applied to a wall using wallpaper paste. The wallpapers can appear as "liner paper" (so they can be painted or used to help cover uneven surfaces and minor defects in the walls, which provides a better surface), textured (like Anaglypta), with a regular repeat pattern design, or, much less commonly today, with a single large design that is not repeated and that is transported on a set of sheets. The smallest rectangle that can be grouped to form the whole pattern is known as the pattern repeat.
Wallpaper printing techniques include surface printing, gravure printing, screen printing, rotary printing and digital printing. The wallpaper is made in long rolls, which are hung vertically on a wall. Patterned wallpapers are designed so that the pattern "repeats" and, therefore, the pieces cut from the same roll can be hung side by side to continue the pattern without it being easy to see where the pattern is produced. union between two pieces. In the case of large and complex image patterns, this is usually achieved by starting the second piece to half the length of the repeat, so that if the pattern going down is repeated after 24 inches, the next piece of side is cut from the roll a Begin 12 inches down the pattern from the first. The number of times the pattern is repeated horizontally on a roll does not matter for this purpose. A single pattern can be issued in several different color combinations.
The main historical techniques are: hand painting, wood printing (in general, the most common), printing and various types of machine printing. The first three go back to before 1700.
Wallpaper, which uses the technique of woodcut engraving, gained popularity in Renaissance Europe among the emerging gentry. The social elite continued to hang large tapestries on the walls of their homes, as they had done in the Middle Ages. These tapestries added color to the room, in addition to providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, which retains the heat in the room. However, the tapestries were extremely expensive and only the very rich could afford them. Fewer well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries because of the prices or wars that impede international trade, became wallpaper to brighten their rooms.
The first images of the wallpaper presented scenes similar to those shown in the tapestries, and the large sheets of paper sometimes hung loose on the walls, in the style of the tapestries, and sometimes they stuck like today. The prints were often pasted on the walls, instead of being framed and hung, and the larger prints, which came in several sheets, were probably intended mainly to stick on the walls. Some important artists made these pieces, especially Albrecht Dürer, who worked both on prints of large photographs and ornaments, designed to hang on the wall. The largest print of the painting was the Arc de Triomphe commissioned by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and was completed in 1515. It measured a colossal 3.57 by 2.95 meters, composed of 192 sheets, and was printed in a first edition of 700 copies, which I pretended to be. Hanging in palaces and, in particular, in town halls, after coloring them by hand.
Very few samples of the first repetitive pattern wallpapers survive, but there are a lot of older master copies, often in repetitive or repeatable decorative pattern prints. These are called embellishments and were designed as models for wallpaper makers, among other uses.
England and France were leaders in the European manufacture of wallpaper. Among the first known samples is one on a wall in England and is printed on the back of a London proclamation of 1509. It became very popular in England after the excommunication of Henry VIII of the Catholic Church: the English aristocrats always they had imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but the separation of Henry VIII with the Catholic Church had led to a fall in trade with Europe. Without any tapestry maker in England, the English nobility and the aristocracy became wallpaper.
During the Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, the manufacture of wallpaper was stopped, seen as a frivolous article by the Puritan government. After the Restoration of Charles II, the wealthy people of all
Chinese hand-painted wallpaper showing a funeral procession, made for the European market, c. 1780
In 1712, during the reign of Queen Anne, a tax on wallpaper was introduced which was not abolished until 1836. By the middle of the eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper maker in Europe, exporting large quantities to Europe in addition to sell in the middle. British class market. However, this trade was severely interrupted in 1755 by the Seven Years' War and later the Napoleonic Wars, and by a high level of tariff on imports into France.
In 1748, the British ambassador in Paris decorated his room with blue wallpaper, which later became very fashionable there. In the 1760s, the French manufacturer Jean-Baptiste Réveillon hired designers who worked in silk and upholstery to produce some of the most subtle and luxurious wallpapers ever made. Its sky blue wallpaper with fleurs-de-lys was used in 1783 in the first balloons of the Montgolfier brothers. The landscape painter Jean-Baptiste Pillement discovered in 1763 a method for using rapid colors.
Hand-blocked wallpapers like these use hand-carved blocks and, for the 18th century, the designs include panoramic views of ancient architecture, exotic landscapes and pastoral themes, as well as repetitive patterns of stylized flowers, people and animals.
In 1785, Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf invented the first machine to print colored dyes on sheets of wallpaper. In 1799, Louis-Nicolas Robert patented a machine to produce continuous lengths of paper, the forerunner of the Fourdrinier machine. This ability to produce continuous lengths of wallpaper now offered the possibility of novel designs and pleasant tints that are widely exhibited in salons across Europe.
Wallpaper makers active in England in the 18th century included John Baptist Jackson and John Sherringham.  Among the companies established in eighteenth-century America: J. F. Bumstead & Co. (Boston), William Poyntell (Philadelphia), John Rugar (New York).
High quality wallpaper made in China became available at the end of the 17th century; This was totally hand painted and very expensive. It can still be seen in rooms in palaces and large houses, including Nymphenburg Palace, Łazienki Palace, Chatsworth House, Newsam Temple, Broughton Castle, Lissan House and Erddig. It was made up to 1.2 meters wide. The English, French and German manufacturers imitated it, usually starting with a printed contour that was colored by hand, a technique that was sometimes also used in the latest Chinese papers.
France and America
Towards the end of the 18th century, the fashion of the scenic wallpaper revived both in America and in France, which gave rise to some huge panoramas, such as the panorama of 1804 wide stripes, Sauvages de la Mer du Pacifique (Savages of the Pacific), designed by the artist. Jean-Gabriel Charvet for the French manufacturer Joseph Dufour et Cie showing the voyages of Captain Cook. This famous wallpaper called "paper paper" is still in situ at Ham House, Peabody, Massachusetts. It was the largest widescreen wallpaper of its time, and marked the flourishing of a French industry in panoramic wallpapers. Dufour achieved an almost immediate success in the sale of these papers and enjoyed a lively trade with the United States. The neoclassical style currently in favor worked well in the houses of the federal period with the elegant designs of Charvet. Like most eighteenth-century wallpapers, the panorama was designed to hang on a die.
'Sauvages de la Mer Pacifique', 1-10 panels of wood stamped wallpaper designed by Jean-Gabriel Charvet and manufactured by Joseph Dufour
Together with Joseph Dufour et Cie (1797 - c.1830), other French panoramic panoramic and trompe l'œil, Zuber et Cie (1797 to present) and Arthur et Robert exported their products throughout Europe and America. from North. Zuber et Cie's c. The design of 1834 Vistas de América del Norte hangs in the Diplomatic Reception Room of the White House.
While Joseph Dufour et Cie was closed in the 1830s, Zuber et Cie still exists and, with Cole & Son of England and the Atelier d'Offard (1999-present) located in France, is one of the last Western producers of wooden blocks. Printed wallpapers For its production, Zuber uses blocks of wood from a file of more than 100,000 cuts in the nineteenth century that are classified as a "Historical Monument". It offers panoramic landscapes such as "Vue de l'Amérique Nord", "Eldorado Hindoustan"...